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Syntax; Brief-answer Questions


1. Define syntax. [NU 2012, 2014, 2016]

Ans: Syntax is the rules and principles of the sentence structure of a language.

2. What does syntax study?

Ans: Syntax studies the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences.

3. What is deep structure?

Ans: Deep structure is a basic sentence which indicates underlying meaning of the sentence.

4. What is surface structure?

Ans: Surface structure is transformed structure of the deep structure sentence.

5. What is the difference between deep and surface structure?

Ans: Deep structure is a basic sentence which indicates underlying meaning of the sentence while surface structure is the transformed structure of the deep structure.

6. What does IC stand for? [NU 2014, 2016]

Ans: IC stands for Immediate Constituent. It is a way of dividing up a sentence into its immediate constituents.

7. What is IC Analysis?

Ans: IC Analysis or Immediate Constituent Analysis a system of grammatical analysis that divides sentences into successive layers or constituents until, in the final layer, each constituent consists of only a word or meaningful part of a word.

8. What is ‘P-marker"?

Ans: ‘P-marker’ means phrase marker that describes the constituent structure or phrase structure of a sentence.

9. What is TG grammar?

Ans: TG grammar means Transformational Generative grammar which is a set of grammar rules that are used when basic clauses are combined to form more complex sentences.

10. What are the components of transformational generative grammar?

Ans: Three components of TG grammar are a syntactic component, a semantic component and a phonological component.

11. What is core grammar?

Ans: Core grammar is the set of universal principles or tendencies which underlie all human languages.

12. What is UG?

Ans: UG is the abbreviated form of Universal Grammar.  It is the “system of categories, mechanisms and constraints shared by all human languages and considered to be innate”

13. What is recursion? NU 2015]

Ans: Recursion is the repeated sequential use of a particular type of linguistic element or grammatical structure.